تغذیه is an important management science in the breeding industry of the milk cows. In the new generation of milk cows because of high production levels, their management is an important issue and requires the use of appropriate technologies. The use of well – mixed rations is a growing feed method in the breeding units of milk cows, which have shown satisfactory and valuable results in the increase in milk production and its compounds (percentage of fat and milk protein). This method helps in the گاهای of the شیری, especially پرتولید (super)to reach their حداکثرعملکرد, and in addition to increasing the power of milk production, proper functioning can be determined and can prevent the emergence of metabolic diseases, especially اسیدوز. My book
Fully blended rations
In the TMR system, all components of the feed, including forage, concentrate, additive, and other additives are set together and set free in the concentration of defined quantities and are released in most hours of the day at اختیارحیوان. In TMR, food is uniform food and is balanced in nutritional terms. In this feeding system, the food processor needs a constant or mobile processor to be distributed fully to and below animals. Of course, over 50 tops of cattle are recommended, and to some extent را farm nutrition management easier and more accurate. The role of management in this system is highly significant, which should be supervised by مدیر and انبارخوراک, ration formulation, گاوها grouping, full allowance of rations and economy. The use of well – mixed rations in advanced Milky Farm has been expanding and has managed to cut about 10 – 5 % of the milk milk production in the شیرواری periods and metabolic diseases especially اسیدوز, bloating.
Tips for preparing the TMR rations
silage – food and feedstuffs test : since the composition of silage or silage materials is subject to change , sampling and testing of samples is important . as long as possible , the percentage of dry matter and moisture content should not be changed as long as possible . silage – determination of dm : due to the climatic conditions of the region should be determined if use of silage materials once a week or twice a week . in case of low dm intake , total dry matter intake is affected and changes in milk yield . (f) the determination of the ph of the thoroughly mixed rations : the ph of the tmr diet should be considered as the ph of the rumen is affected by the diet and altering the ph , bacterial activities and rumen degradability . thus , adding adequate buffer ( ph ) to the tmr diet reduces the use of dry matter and improves milk production . ( health.com : _ to _ maintain _ fresh _ food _ fresh _ before _ feeding _ cows : _ care _ must _ be _ considered _ to _ be _ suitable _ for _ cows _ daily _ and _ still _ maintain _ food _ quality it should be noted that when planning these rations , the consumption of dry matter , percentage of dm , cp , ndf , adf , nfc , fat , mineral content ( ca , p , mg , potassium , sulfur , and salt ) , the amount of vitamins ( a , d , e ) , ratio of forage to concentrate and total energy of net energy of breast feeding per pound or kg cp were considered
Management tips when using TMR
* the diet should be tested frequently ( week a ) . * silage hay should be crushed properly , avoids too long and too large in diets . * dry matter of silage must be checked at minimum levels , changes in dry matter can change the entire diet . * the diet should be properly mixed until the diet is balanced . low – consumption of food by cattle indicates the low quality of feed , which should be monitored on a daily basis in order to be more than 80 – 80 % of the feed without consumption in the manger . * the diet should be available for cows at about 10,000 – kwh per day . * the cows should be grouped according to their level of production and age , i.e. , one farm without flaw that uses the tmr system has two feeding groups . large , medium , low – production , low – production dairy cows : early drying , the end of the dry period , heifers : the heifer of growth , the dairy heifers in order to reduce the costs can be used for the small dairy cows production and cheap feed ingredients . * the diets of the growing heifers must be concentrated mainly to a small amount of tmr . * the used forage must be of good quality , especially for large dairy cows . * in the group of dry dairy cows , days before parturition , the cation – anion balance should be observed . * addition of buffer to the diet can be useful for reducing the potential risk of metabolic syndrome . * it should be considered as a manger for each cow in the manger . * the tmr dry matter must be between 0 – 18 % . the benefit of a fully mixed ration of tmr can occur in flocks that use the tmr system . * compare the tmr diet with tmr . an increase in feed intake by about 80 % compared with conventional diets may be expected . * incidence of gastrointestinal and metabolic problems ( especially acidosis ) is often reduced . * production of estimated milk yield by using this system will increase . research and experiments have shown that the use of this system has resulted in increased milk production per cow during a lactation period . * control the composition of the diet , formulation and management of the ingredients is more accurate and accurate . * the power of choice of cattle in feed consumption is eliminated . * with increase in dry matter intake , fat and protein content of milk increase . * loss of feed in this system . * restore labor force and facilitate management * high levels of feedstuffs can be used in fully mixed diets . the disadvantage of using quite mixed diets for mixing the diet is that it is expensive . * for all the flocks of a flock of harmonious diets , cows need to be graded . * cost – effective for small flocks ( e.g. , dairy cows ) . * feed analysis is required , especially for dry matter and moisture content . * require a special storage for mixing of the diet and maintenance .
feeding and feeding of dairy cows is of particular importance that this same complexity demands strong management . today , due to increased production of dairy cattle , feeding management and feeding methods are important and there is a need to use appropriate technology . tmr is a feed – feeding method in which all the ingredients of a diet mix and feed the animal . the results of several studies and experiments confirmed the usefulness of this system in increasing milk production capacity , increased consumption of dry matter , reducing food waste , accurate control of diet composition , and hence the use of this system in modern farms and the results of this system have been obtained in increasing milk production , protein and milk fat . however , the use of this system in small flocks is limited due to the cost of equipment and others , and use other feeding methods .